An Instrument Landing System[ILS] provided by TESBL Aerospace is a precision runway approach aid employing two radio beams to provide pilots with vertical and horizontal guidance during the landing approach.
- The localizer (LOC)provides azimuth guidance, while the glideslope (GS) defines the correct vertical descent profile.
- Marker beacons and high-intensity runways lights may also be provided as aids to the use of an ILS, although the former is more likely nowadays to have been replaced by a DME integral to the ILS or one otherwise located on the aerodrome, for example with a VOR.
- The ILS LOC aerials are normally located at the end of the runway; they transmit two narrow intersecting beams, one slightly to the right of the runway centreline, the other slightly to the left which, where they intersect, define the "on LOC"
- Airborne equipment provides information to the pilot showing the aircraft’s displacement from the runway centreline.
- An ILS is only valid if used within strict boundaries either side of the transmitted LOC and GS beams as documented on the corresponding Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP)'s. From a pilot perspective, these limits are defined as Full-Scale Deflection (FSD) of the deviation indication on the ILS displays in the flight deck, since once the deviation in respect of either the LOC or GS reaches FSD, it becomes impossible to know the extent of the deviation.
- Because of this, pilots navigating their aircraft onto an ILS, whether from below the GS or above, have always been expected, when acquiring an ILS GS, to cross-check their range from a touchdown against their indicated altitude/height and confirm that their aircraft is on the promulgated IAP GS